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Steve Biko and the Black Consciousness Movement  

Leslie Anne Hadfield

Online publication date:
Feb 2017
The Black Consciousness movement of South Africa instigated a social, cultural, and political awakening in the country in the 1970s. By the mid-1960s, major anti-apartheid organizations in ... More

The Swahili in the African and Indian Ocean Worlds to c. 1500  

Abdul Sheriff

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of African History. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

The History of Migrant Labor in South Africa (1800–2014)  

Peter Delius

Online publication date:
May 2017
A pervasive system of migrant labor played a fundamental part in shaping the past and present of South Africa’s economy and society and has left indelible marks on the wider region. South ... More

Urbanization in East Africa, circa 900–2010 CE  

Andrew Burton

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
East Africa’s urban past is broken down into five historical periods. The first (c. 900–1500 ce) saw the emergence of an urban Swahili culture on the East African coast that flourished ... More

Urban Society in Colonial Sudan  

Ahmad Alawad Sikainga

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
As in the rest of Africa, the establishment of colonial rule has accelerated the pace of urban growth in the Sudan. During the period of British colonial rule (1898–1956), a number of new ... More

West African Cinema  

John McCall

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of African History. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

West African Manuscripts in Arabic and African Languages and Digital Preservation  

Fallou Ngom

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
West African manuscripts are numerous and varied in forms and contents. There are thousands of them across West Africa. A significant portion of them are documents written in Arabic and ... More

Women and Apartheid  

Meghan Healy-Clancy

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
Apartheid, the system of racial and ethnic separation introduced in South Africa in 1948, was a gendered project. The immediate goal of the white Afrikaner men who led the apartheid state ... More

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